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PEDAGOGICAL CHALLENGES IN BURTON MADARSSAH
Analysis and Discussion
This chapter intends to present the significant findings of the data gathered through interviews and analyse the issues faced by the teachers in the Islamic education setup at Burton Madressah due to the shift from physical classes to online classes environment as per the implementation of lockdown measures imposed because of Coronavirus pandemic. To support these findings, bits of evidence have been penned down in this section, supported by related literature. With that being said, it is worth saying that this chapter discusses and show evidence of discussions regarding the analysis and results, alongside its rationalisation.
Issues faced by teachers due to the shift from the physical environment to the online environment have made various authors pen down their researches regarding the pandemic of covid-19. Hence, based on the collected data from 10 teachers and ten parents. Note that since students have also faced issues due to lockdown measures and shift to online classes, the interviews have not been taken from students due to necessary security clearance DBS has not been taken. For this purpose, various themes are generated so that the analysis can be carried out more profoundly, adding value to the research. In addition, these themes help answer the research questions of this study.
EXPERIENCE AND ISSUES AMID CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC
Based on this theme, a question was asked from teachers and parents regarding their online learning experience and whether they are comfortable with the shift from the physical environment to the online environment, along with what challenges they face during this online shift. In this regard, one of the teachers mentioned:
“The experience was new however critical on the online agenda because of bad deliverance quality and the management were experiencing a learning curve when tackling online teaching thus overall a bad experience.” (T-8)
Another teacher responded:
“That from a learning viewpoint, teaching online needs professionalism as it is difficult to manage since there is no physical collaboration, and developments of students became challenging. Thus it was a struggle to conduct group sessions as there was a lack of engagement, so overall good and bad experience.” (T-9)
Upon asking about the challenges, T-7 and T-2 responded:
“There were challenges of attendance, internet access, and collaboration between teachers and students, which hinder the quality of deliverance. Moreover, there were more distractions in an online environment, and students become frustrated if sessions were extended.”
The same stance was asked from parents to which overall parents responded good experience. However, regarding the challenges, one of the parents mentioned:
“The issues of network interruptions and distractions from other family members are a major concern. Moreover, to overcome this issue, the parent suggested recording the session instead of the live session so to avoid network problems.” (P-7)
The findings of the current research align with a study by Hayat et al. (2021). This study was also conducted through semi-structured interviews regarding the challenges and opportunities during the covid-19 pandemic. The findings of Hayat et al. (2021) showed that an important element of key significance in online learning was the quality of teaching, and gratification was the format of content utilising multimedia. As per Hayat et al. (2021), since there was a lack of effective physical interaction and teachers face many issues while familiarising with the IT equipment results in content dissatisfaction and the quality of deliverance. Furthermore, as per the findings from collected data and Hayat et al. (2021), giving regular up-to-date lectures and content takes extraordinary time compared to the content delivered in in-person education.
The findings also align with the study of Aslam and Parveen (2021), who expressed the challenges of technology and equipment issues. The findings further support the current research as it emphasises that teachers’ intrinsic and extrinsic enthusiasm has a substantial role in the constant utilisation of flipped instructing and digital self-effectiveness. Furthermore, bad infrastructure, restricted digital skills, and lower enthusiasm were recognised as the significant obstacles that impact technological integration.
IMPACTS OF CHALLENGES ON LEARNING AND MERITS AND DEMERITS OF ONLINE LEARNING
Based on this theme, a question was asked from teachers and parents regarding the online platforms whether they are better for learning in association with teaching methods. They were additionally asked about the advantages and disadvantages of methods of online learning. In this regard, one of the teachers mentioned:
“Yes, online platforms are better for learning in association with teaching methods. Nevertheless, it is reliant on the subject, whether it is Qaida, fiqh or tajweed. Aqida can be taught online in a better way. However, fiqh and tajweed need physical in-person teaching and utilisation of whiteboards.” (T-2)
In this regard, T-10 responded:
“It reliant as Arabia (upbringing) is carried out first before the taleem (education) is given.” (T-10)
Some teachers were asked about the advantages and disadvantages of methods of online learning to which one respondent mentioned:
“The advantages of online learning is that we can work from home and can organise the classes as per our suitability if the classes are out of hours. Moreover, teaching online is time-saving, and we do not have to travel and provide content from anywhere. It is additionally good for class segregation to the team at distinct times. However, students’ misbehaviour is most seen as the disadvantage of online learning if they are not supervised by their parents properly, and sometimes students turn off the cameras, which might disrupt the communication. Moreover, it is challenging to examine students because they can do cheating and can copy answers from anywhere as we teachers cannot see them.” (T-6)
Teachers were additionally asked about the style that whether it is similar to face-to-face teaching to which T-4 responded:
“Hifz class did not have much difference in teaching style.” (T-4)
The same stance was asked from parents to which, one of the parents responded:
“A perfect syllabus, regular attendance, and parent’s supervision make the online learning of children better as compared to in-person learning.” (P-5)
In this regard, according to one respondent:
“I assumed that in-person learning is better as compared to online learning for young students, and I additionally have observes that time of attention and focus of students is no longer present when they are in front of the screen.” (P-9)
The advantages and disadvantages of online learning were also asked from parents to which one respondent mentioned:
“The foremost advantage for online learning is that the teacher can be available any time 24/7. Moreover, it is easy to learn and concentrate, and there is no travel/drop-offs and pick/ups at the mosque, and children are out of trouble withthe physical environment. However, the disadvantages are almost the same as that of teachers like connectivity issues, distractions and interruptions, and lastly missing their friends and class.” (P-1)
The above findings of the current research have also been articulated by Alshamrani (2019). Alshamrani (2019) carried out the study using surveys and interviews to profoundly comprehend the merits and demerits of online education concerning perspectives of students’. The findings of Alshamrani (2020) supported the findings of the current research and recognised that the role played by technical infrastructure and internet connectivity is dominant in guaranteeing the triumph of online learning. Additionally, the content and technology providers must offer moveable, top-notch quality, interoperable solutions to convey similar content throughout various institutions and departments of the same institution. Moreover, Alshamrani (2020) findings further demonstrated that benefits could be leveraged to boost the popularisation of online learning and familiarise with the best practice in utilising online learning platforms. Moreover, the findings of Ma’Ruf et al.(2020) showed that as the technology is becoming advanced and it has made life and routine operations much simpler, however, because of less funding to madrassas, not all madrassa are outfitted with technical tools so that instructors might carry out online classes effectively.
The findings are additionally in line with the study of Kuchkarova (2021), who carried the study using interviews. In support of the findings from the interviews of the current research, Kuchkarova (2021) expressed that face-to-face learning compared to online learning is similar to comparing the taste of oranges with apples. In simpler words, they are different fruits. Therefore, it is of no sense to compare the two different modes of learning. Kuchkarfurther demonstrates that besides interaction and communication, online learning makes the curriculum extra engaging and fascinating with expensive graphics and visual displays. As per the findings of the proposed research and Kuchkarova (2021), it is assumed that the degree of acceptance and emphasis on extending the learner base may be amplified massively, with the addition of technology utilising a platform rich with multimedia as well as interfaces.
Moreover, the findings of Hanafi et al. (2021) also supported the findings from the interviews of the proposed research and state that institutions like Burton Madressah yet not possess sufficient internet and technological advancements facilities. Also, few instructors reside in areas with poor connections to the internet and face episodic blackouts, which are a barrier in online learning and impact the quality of deliverance. Moreover, Hanafi et al. (2021) findings also support teachers who had a bad online learning experience because the skills of few teachers of Burton Madressah regarding Information and Communication Technology are quite low. Some teachers are additionally not acquainted with online learning as before the covid-19, all the previous sessions and content and any knowledge were imparted face to face.
Kapasia et al. (2020) further supported teachers’ and parents’ responses regarding the technology or apps used for online learning. Kapasia et al. (2020) mentioned various platforms for students to easily receive the content, including Google Meet, Zoom, Google Forms, YouTube channel, and WhatsApp. According to Kapasia et al. (2020), this is the good side of the “new normal” condition as the ICT abilities of teachers of Burton Madressahare improving. In a roundabout way, this condition makes instructors mindful of the significance of dominating ICT utilisation in the study hall. With this preparation, the teachers desire to have the option to apply blended learning rapidly and adequately. This is a meaningful step forward in Burton Madressah education. Regarding Kapasia et al. (2020), these endeavours can prompt better standards and nature of learning.”
EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE LEARNING
Based on this theme, a question was asked from teachers and parents regarding how effective these changes, i.e. a shift from physical to the online environment, are in teaching methods and whether they are willing to continue to this change after the end of the lockdown measures imposed by covid-19. In this regard, one of the teachers mentioned:
“Deliverance will turn out to be extra professional; nevertheless, I would have the same opinion that the classical learning will until the end of the time have an effect by in-person teaching.” (T-7)
Another respondent mentioned:
“It would result in a better way. MoreovMoreover, practice doing this in various ways and makes research and case studies emphasise being better. Be practical, teaching methods and be additional prepared for it.” (T-8)
When the teachers were asked about their preference for in-person learning over online learning, all respondents replied yes as they are more comfortable and skilled in teaching in-person and imparting their knowledge face-to-face. However, one of the respondents mentioned:
“I will prefer online teaching as I am a housewife so that it suits me and much time of mine.” (T-4)
The same stance was asked from parents to which, one of the parents responded:
“It is effectual; however, the only shortcoming is that students who can practice cannot be checked and corrected or can show their mistakes and corrections on a computer. Within Islamic Supplementary schooling, mosques have whiteboards; hence it is easy for teachers to show the students their mistakes whereas it is challenging to show that on computer.” (P-7)
Parents were also asked how the efficiency of Islamic Supplementary Schooling for online classes can be guaranteed. In this regard, one of the respondents mentioned:
“By having progress monitoring tools such as standard school system can ensure the efficiency of Islamic supplementary schooling. This can be year expectancy for each able student, graphical representation of a student’s progress.” (P-10)
Another respondent mentioned:
“Might be a little added research on improvements is needed to ensure the efficiency of Islamic schooling.” (P-3)
The parents and teachers’ findings align with Musbahtiti, Saady, and Muhammad (2013). Musbahtiti, Saady, and Muhammad (2013) emphasise the ethics and principles in the online learning system related to Islamic schooling. As per the findings of this study, Islamic supplementary schooling has emphasised a very exact association between the teacher and the student-centred on complete respect and attention from the student to the instructor. However, these findings show that the effectiveness of online platforms, to a greater extent, is not up to the mark as students forget the guidelines and principles of Islamic schooling. An illustration of this is the interactions and disruptions on online platforms, and students are not attentive, which violates Islamic supplementary schooling rules. Musbahtiti, Saady, and Muhammad (2013) additionally focused that students should be many disciplines and should not once ask questions devoid of instructors permission. However, the findings from the collected structured interviews showed that interruptions in the online sessions occur because students cannot wait for their turn to ask and interrupt repeatedly to show their lesser levels of patience. Hence, it can be concluded that online platforms are not as effective within Islamic supplementary schooling.
As per the findings of Islam et al. (2020),which supports the above findings showed that Islamic supplementary schoolingis persistently attempting to further develop their online schooling framework with trend-setting innovations, yet because of the absence of assets like web connection, learning gadgets that are of top-notch, incorporation of current and cutting edge innovation and a couple of several students, numerous Islamic schools, for example, Burton Madrassa is confronting many issues while moving from physical to online classes, along these lines, the endeavours of attempting to make the instructive Islamic organisations worked on brought about the development of Madrassas. Hence, if the mentioned trend can be set, then the effectiveness of online platforms in Islamic supplementary schooling like Burton Madrassa can be ensured.
Islam emphasises greatly on ethics
Moreover, has its philosophy of teaching and learning.
RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE ONLINE LEARNING
Based on this theme, a question was asked from teachers and parents regarding the efficiency of the changes in teaching style as contrasted with the previous ones. The participants were additionally asked about their recommendations to improve online teaching. In this regard, one of the teachers mentioned:
“No, the changes in instructing style are not efficient. However, it is only effective for those students who do not have instructors in their local areas.” (T-9)
However, another participant responded positively:
“The usage of IT tools and abundance experience and many books were found, screen sharing. The online platform was extraordinary of an eye-opener.” (T-10)
Regarding the recommendations for improved teaching, one of the teachers responded:
“Teacher training is required for using equipment and online platforms. Teachers must attempt to make sessions additional interactive because of many interactions. The online option should be introduced further and utilised professionally for it to bring a positive impact.” (T-2)
“I would prepare and plan professionally. The students will also be trained, and workbook will be issued for familiarisation of computers and internet. There would be student support available.” (T-6)
The same stance was asked from parents to which, one of the parents responded:
“Taking regular tests and small activities are efficient ways of monitoring students involvement and learning during online sessions. This will ensure that students are learning the right knowledge.” (P-4)
Regarding the improvements needed in teaching, one of the parents mentioned:
“Islamic supplementary schooling for online sessions of learning must have ease of access to online modules and content, also have a structured program to accomplish the aims for all skilled students.”(P-5)
Another participant mentioned:
“Teachers must keep the online learning session fun for the students. In this way they do not lose interest and assists them attentive in sessions.” (P-8)
The findings from the current research regarding the recommendation for improved teaching aligned with the findings of Akseer et al. (2020). According to Akseer et al. (2020), there are various strategies and techniques that instructors at Burton Madressah can employ whilst provide online teaching to students. The findings of Akseer et al. (2020) supported the responses received from the participants involved in the present research and showed that teachers could improve the effectiveness of online classes using interactive material. According to Akseer et al. (2020), the teachers can utilise the blackboards app to exhibit the study material onto the computer screen with the assistance of an easy instruction manual, as they utilised in the physical study halls. The findings of this study additionally showed that teachers must utilise effective video content that includes the recitation of the Quran with tajweed. These videos can be available on YouTube. To improve the effectiveness of online classes, the teachers can share the links to these videos. Moreover, there are various online pages, for example, websites that have an ample amount of Islamic course materials.
Moreover, the current research findings from interviews are further in line with the study of Butnaru et al. (2021). Butnaru et al. (2021) expressed their views on improving online classes and suggestions to train teachers on utilising online modalities and creating lesson plans with decreased psychological burden and expanded interactivities. It has also been recommended that exams ought to be live recordings and live accounts. Besides, suggestions reflect that etiquette can be maintained by carefully managing students, setting guidelines for the online association, directing and disciplinary activities. Likewise, teachers need training and students direction in utilising online-based learning tools. Lastly, it has been recommended that purchasing premium programming bundles will likewise assist with defeating numerous limits and is like this suggested.
From the analyses, it can be interpreted that seeing that the world is becoming gradually interrelated, and so do the risks individuals encounter every day. According to Schleicher (2020), the outbreak of COVID-19 has not been contested at the national borders. On the contrary, it has influenced people irrespective of income, sexual orientation, level of education and nationality. However, the same has not been true for its implications, which have to strike the majority of the defenceless the most. Moreover, education among them is no exception. The findings of the current research are evident that are supported by Schleicher (2020) that this catastrophe has uncovered the various insufficiencies and unfairness in the education system of the Burton Madressah; from broadband access and digital equipment required for online learning, along with the supportive environment required to emphasis on learning, up to the misalignment amid assets and wants. Whilst the community and educational institutions throughout this period have made concerning endeavours to sustain the continuity of learning, students have had to depend on their assets to endure online learning via the internet, TV, or radio, or by some other means.
The current research findings have analysed that teachers and parents of the Burton Madressah faced many challenges amid the outbreak of COVID-19. There were mixed experiences of participants regarding the online learning and teaching sessions. Regarding the undertaking of online sessions, as per the analysis, which is aligned with the study of Nyamboga and Ali (2020) showed that teachers had to be flexible with the new pedagogical notions and modes of delivery of instructing, for which they might not have been prepared and do not possess those IT skills which are hindering their sessions.
The findings showed that T-9 and P-7 responded to the experience and challenges of online learning during the pandemic of COVID-19. These findings have been supported by Islam (2020), who provide the evidence that the ongoing epidemic has forced the regulatory bodies of the nations that have been developed and that are developing to alter various practices, policies, and conducts based on the level of individuals and nations. The limitations recommended by the regulatory entities are aligning with the measures that are intended to evade the congregational groups or any event or activity that might elevate the possibility of contracting the virus. Hence, the educational system of Burton Madressah was shifted from a physical to an online environment.
The findings from current research further align with Hidayat (2017), who perceived a major gap between the students choosing for online Islamic studies. Hidayat (2017) further support the findings of T-6 and P-9, who articulated that there was a lack of effective physical interaction and teachers face many issues while familiarising. In this regard, Akseer et al. (2020) showed the additional challenges in online learning, like the absence of a teacher and the incapability to deliberate upon it with their peers. The findings of Akseer et al. (2020) further showed compatibility issues (with operating systems, browsers, smartphones and devices) and are struggling with foreseeable technological challenges that upset the students and teachers, affecting the online sessions, thus impacting the online sessions the quality of deliverance.
Mansir (2021) supported the participants’ findings regarding the impacts of challenges of online learning and expressed that the problems that madrassahs are experiencing are also due to the diversified teaching styles and practices that have been impacted poorlyby the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in this regard, the findings from the study by Suryaman et al. (2020) showed that the current research findings demonstrated that teaching online is additionally regarded to be an effective approach according to Mosques and Imams National Advisory Board (MINAB). The findings of Suryaman et al. (2020) presents better education up to 30%, and it is 40% less time consuming and 30% inexpensive.
The findings of P-1, P-9 and T-6 showed the various advantages and disadvantages of online learning. These findings of participants were supported by the findings generated by Alshamrani (2020), who showed that the benefits of online learning could be leveraged to amplify the popularisation of online learning and acquaints with the best practice in using online learning platforms. Additionally, these findings were also supported by Ma’Ruf et al. (2020), according to whom the technology is becoming highly developed, and it has made life and routine operations simpler and easier. Nevertheless, Ma’Ruf also showed the issues faced by madrassah to implement an effective online system due to less funding. Not all madrassahs are equipped with technical tools so that it helps the teachers take to make online learning more effective and efficient.
The current research analysed the effectiveness of online learning. In this regard, findings from the parents showed that online learning is effective due to the comfort of studying from home. However, teachers added that online learning is effective because deliverance has to be extra professional. Kapasia et al. (2020) supported the findings of the current research regarding the effectiveness of online learning and expressed their views that online learning is the good side of the new normal condition because the Information and Communication Tool skills of teachers of Burton Madressah are improving due to the online sessions. In a roundabout way, this condition makes instructors mindful of the significance of dominating ICT utilisation in the study hall. With this preparation, the teachers desire to have the option to apply blended learning rapidly and adequately. According to the findings of Kapasia et al. (2020), this is a meaningful step forward in Burton Madressah education, and these endeavours can prompt better standards and nature of learning.
The findings from the participants T-8 and P-10 showed the effectiveness of the changes imposed by COVID-19. The findings of these participants coincide with Musbahtiti, Saady, and Muhammad (2013), who emphasise that Islamic supplementary schooling has emphasised an exact association between the teacher and the student-centred on complete respect and attention from the student to the instructor. However, these findings show that the effectiveness of online platforms, to a greater extent, is not up to the mark as students forget the guidelines and principles of Islamic schooling. An illustration of this is the interactions and disruptions on online platforms, and students are not attentive, which violates Islamic supplementary schooling rules that match current research findings.
From findings, it was observed that participants were asked regarding how the improvement can be done in making online learning effective. In this regard, various parents have shared their views regarding the teachers’ training and skills concerning tools and applications used in online sessions and how they can improve their teaching style. These findings were supported by Best (2020), who expressed his views regarding the recruitment of suitable teachers in madrassahs. According to Best (2020), there must be particular criteria for the teachers to get hired in madrassahs for teaching if they are eligible and competent with the prerequisites. Hence, Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) must be required. According to Best’s findings (2020), more or less 14% of madrassahs require teachers who have QTS. Thus, he recommended theological training required for the remaining 57% of teachers to instruct in madrassah. He additionally showed the significance of theological training amongst the instructors as this is how the quality of education can be improved within the Islamic supplementary schooling system.
The current research findings were also supported by Hanafi et al. (2021), who observed that Islamic madrassahs such as Burton Madrassah do not have ample internet and technological advancement facilities. That is why teachers face difficulties in online learning, as stated by teachers because they do not have the adequate skills and competence to thrive in the digital online world. In this regard, Suryaman et al.(2020) also presented their findings and demonstrated that training to teachers to impart sufficient Islamic teachings to students are facilitated by the Mosques and Imams National Advisory Board (MINAB) which is considered as the foremost Islamic institution within the UK. Hence, this is the responsibility of MINAB to sustain the Islamic education standards within the Burton Madrassah by offering wide-ranging education to the instructors.
Besides, current research findings demonstrate that parents expressed their views that teachers must keep the online learning session fun to avoid losing interest and focus. These findings align with the study findings of Butnaru et al. (2021), who showed that there are various Islamic videos and sessions available on YouTube and other websites from which the students can get more knowledge, and then this would be a new initiative for them as in physical classes this facility cannot be availed.
The current research findings have also demonstrated that parents expressed that regular assessments must ensure that students receive appropriate knowledge. In support of this Butnaru, et al. (2021) expressed that to make online sessions effective and make sure the students are learning, regular assessments must be taken live to avoid cheating, and teachers can identify the effectiveness of their teaching styles based on the results of students. The findings of Butnaru et al. (2021) further emphasise teachers’ training on using online modalities. In this regard, the findings of Akseer et al. (2020) also supported current research findings and recommended the use of interactive materials, as mentioned by Butnaru et al. (2021), along with blackboards. In this way, according to Peñarrubia-Lozano, et al. (2021), when teachers are well trained and can engage the students efficiently, it will boost students’ motivation as technology plays a key role in amplifying students motivations (Cabero and Aguaded, 2014). This implies them taking an additional constructive attitude towards academic tasks set by teachers. Therefore, it will boost their engagement in online learning, making it more effective and improving the quality of deliverance.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]