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This section of the research determines the methodology of the study that is used for this dissertation. The primary aim of this section is to set the direction for the study by giving a proper structure.  In addition, it will present the research methods as well as concepts utilised to perform the research. It is also essential to present the data collection method along with the research strategy adopted to conduct this study. Moreover, this section mainly defines how the study should adopt ethical considerations to avoid ethical misconduct. On the basis of this, this section will determine the research philosophy, research method, research approach, research design, method of data collection, inclusion and exclusion criteria, data analysis, and ethical consideration.

Research Philosophy

According to Abutabenjeh (2018), research philosophy is considered to be related to data collection and conduct analysis to accomplish the research objectives. DeJonckheere (2019) also mentioned that research philosophy plays a crucial part in assisting the author in collecting detailed information regarding the phenomenon of study. In this context, three types of research philosophies are there: pragmatism, interpretivism, and positivism, which allow the author to form certain decisions to adopt the particular approach and why. Moreover, it has resulted from the objectives of the research. As per Abutabenjeh (2018), the interpretivism philosophy of study mainly depends on the rule that makes reference to that the author plays out a specific job to notice the social world.

Furthermore, the exploration in this way of thinking is dependent on the author’s interest. However, Abutabenjeh (2018) also mentioned that positivism emphasises the role of prediction and explanation. Therefore, the role of the author in positivism is considered limited to data collection. In contrast, pragmatism research philosophy is determined, primarily dealing with the practical results are considered more crucial.

Therefore, in this study, interpretivism has been used to insight into the pedagogical challenges in Burton Madrassa for online classes during the Coronavirus Pandemic. As in interpretivism, the analyst uses subjective examination to accomplish research goals (DeJonckheere, 2019). This permits the researcher to investigate and fathom different raw numbers with respect to exploring research questions and insight into the research phenomenon (Ford, 2018).

Research Approach

The research approach is one of the crucial parts of this study, enabling it to streamline research objectives. According to DeJonckheere (2019), the author starts with particular measures and objectives in the inductive approach, which primarily identifies the regularities and patterns, formulate few tentative hypotheses that are explored, and establish few general theories along with a sound conclusion. On the other hand, the deductive approach works generic to specific, sometimes also known as a top-down approach. However, Abutabenjeh (2018) indicated that the inductive approach utilised in the research is related to the detailed analysis of data, concepts, models, and themes via existing theories and research interpretations. DeJonckheere, (2019) stated that the approach starts by collecting data pertinent to the aims and targets of the exploration. After the sufficient measure of data is assembled, the author separates the significant and helpful data from the gathered information, venturing back to acquire an overall thought of the information. The specified data is now subjected to critical observation resulting in patterns and examples, which helped form a hypothesis to substantiate those examples (Ford, 2018).

Consequently, in this research, an inductive research approach has been utilised to comprehend the issues encountered by the teachers in the Islamic education setup at the Burton Madrassah during a move from a classroom environment to an online environment during the lockdown measures implemented because of the Coronavirus pandemic. These issues are more concentrated towards pedagogy used by the teachers.

Research Method

According to Gray (2019), all the strategies utilised during the examination of the research are named as methods of research. These three kinds of strategies are; qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research. The qualitative strategy empowers the researcher and the investigation respondents to draw versatility and precipitously (Ford, 2018). It is believed that the qualitative research technique is the main logical, arranged, and esteem unbiased and incorporates more extensive perspectives and views of the research participants, which enables the researchers to have an in-depth analysis of various aspects of the research phenomenon (Gray, 2019).

In contrast, quantitative data collection deals with the number and enables the researchers to use statistical and mathematical approaches to address the research question (Kumar, 2019). Moreover, the mixed method is a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods (Gray, 2019). In this study, the qualitative research method is used because it will help the researchers critically assess pedagogical challenges faced by Islamic madrassah education while conducting online classes amid the Coronavirus and the impact of pedagogical challenges (teachers’ adaptability to online platforms) for teachers in Burton madrassah. Finally, it will help determine what instructional strategy was used by Islamic madrassah education during the coronavirus pandemic.

Research Design

Research design can be defined as collecting data that can be collected by two methods such as primary and secondary data collection method (Kumar, 2019). Particularly, in the primary research technique, the author gathers first-hand information directly associated with participants. This direct association permits the researcher to collect information to achieve the study objectives (Lapointe, 2018). On the other hand, in the technique of secondary research, the study is reviewed, synthesised, and analysed on an already presented information basis to understand the information and analyse the appropriate outcome (Kumar, 2019). In addition to secondary research, researchers can retrieve data from already published articles and journals within a limited period of time, but it does not provide real-time information (Lapointe, 2018). However, with the help of primary research design, researchers can collect real-time information. In addition, the study aims to teach the measures for the improvement of online teaching Burton madrassah education.

Data Collection

As stated above, the study will employ a primary data collection method. Therefore the data will be collected with the help of interviews involving open ended questions for which the ten parents and ten teachers from Burton madrassah. This will help the researchers assess the efficiency of Islamic supplementary schooling; effective measures and instructional strategies needed to be taught for improving online teaching in Burton Madrassah education during the Coronavirus pandemic.

In this research, the open-ended questions were used for data collection because it helps the researcher gather more info and contextual feedback, which can assist him in responding to the research questions. Furthermore, open-ended question enables to comprehend genuine feelings and attitudes of participants regarding the research topic. In addition, research questions helped the researcher to have a profound understanding of the topic as it helps to predict any possible challenges or issues within the research. Moreover, regarding the suitability of the research question, it can be said that as the topic is regarding the pedagogical challenges in Burton Madressah, which are wide-ranging as Islamic institutions can face various challenges during the covid-19 pandemic; hence the research topic was narrow down to specific challenges of online learning, therefore, providing the satisfactoriness of research questions.

Data Analysis Method

Choosing the proper information analysis technique is vital as it helps the author separate the appropriate outcomes from the gathered data for the examination question. The quantitative information is broke down by utilising measurable techniques (Lapointe, 2018); in any case, the qualitative information is examined by utilising narrative, content, narrative, thematic, a long discourse analysis (Castleberry, 2018). Additionally, content data analysis is considered the method to define concepts and themes within some provided information and enables the author to analyse the relationship and meaning of that particular data (Lapointe, 2018). However, narrative data analysis is considered the method where the author can evaluate the writer who provides data, asking their statement (Johnston, (2017). Lastly, discourse analysis is considered to study spoken or written language regarding its social context (Castleberry, 2018).

On the other hand, Johnston (2017) expounds that the thematic analysis empowers the age of various subjects like statistical data points are broke down to address research questions and look at its effect. Subsequently, in this research, the thematic investigation has been utilised to address the research phenomenon because it helps to critically analyse different facts regarding the research phenomenon. Additionally, this analysis’ theoretical liberty includes that it gives a highly flexible approach that can be adjusted for several needs of research, giving detailed and rich and complex information account (Castleberry, 2018). In addition, the advantages of using this analysis in this study are that it assisted in categorising and synthesising the data to the writer the conclusion and classifying how the data address the research objectives (Johnston, 2017). Therefore, this method was chosen as it helps in better and point-to-point analysis of the interview questions.

Moreover, the thematic analysis technique is common as it is usually used by various researchers in the past when analysing the interviews within the research. Besides, the researcher devised the interview questions for the research, which is one of the advantages of research questions as they can be formulated according to the subject topic and requirements of the data needed to be collected. Thus, these questions were devised particularly with the requirements of the research topic.

The themes analysed in the study are the experience and issues amid the coronavirus pandemic, impacts of challenges on learning and merits and demerits of online learning, the effectiveness of online learning, and recommendations to improve online learning.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

As per the study of Johnston (2017), the inclusion and exclusion criteria usually manifest who can be included or excluded from sampling. In addition, the inclusion criteria mainly determine the research population in reliable, consistent, and reliable ways (Pandve, 2016). On the other hand, the exclusion criteria usually involve the characteristics and the factors that form the recruited population on online platforms that can disarray research results (Pietila, 2020). Therefore, this study has adopted various criteria to identify the appropriate research source and ensure research authenticity. At first, the overall study has an abundance of keywords that are involved in the study. Then, however, the vague ideas and information from the research will be excluded from the data sources. In addition, Pandve, 2016) determined that an appropriate standard have been joined for the examination content other than arbitrary information assortment in the research. Subsequently, the primary goal of the author is to shape suitable research. In this way, the inclusion, just as models of exclusion, are characterised reasonably to guarantee that the information is removed from the evidence-based execution. As stated above, the data will be collected with the help of interviews for which the students and teachers of the Islamic schools, therefore students, and teachers from other schools, will be excluded.



Ethical Consideration

This research has gathered different perspectives just as components of morals with grouped authenticity just as valid through reasonable reference (Pandve, 2016). On the other hand, the issues involving piracy and plagiarism are also considered authentic and problematic. In addition, suitable citation needs to be provided to satisfy the moral thought by examining the current information. In addition, the information gathered from the sources is required to be referred to with appropriate authorisations. Moreover, for this research, the Data Protection Act and GDPR guidelines were taken into account to ensure that the information used is transparent, fair, and authentic (Pietila, 2020).

Additionally, various ethical aspects should be considered while conducting research as the study is based on the primary data collection; therefore, to ensure the ethical concerns, the aims and objectives of the study will be clearly defined to the research participants so that if they wish to participate in the research, they can otherwise they can withdraw their participation (Pietila, 2020). In addition to this, after defining the aims and objectives of the study, proper consent will be taken from the participants of the study. Moreover, the study has ensured that the participants of the study do not get any harm and all their details are kept confidential. Therefore, the deceptive practices would be avoided, and the participants of the study will have all the right to withdraw from the study whenever they want; they will not be forced to answer all the interview questions.



Study Limitation

As per the study of Woo (2017), while the primary research method is considered significant to collect the data, it poses several critical issues, including cost, consumption of time, and it is not always considered feasible. Moreover, Ryan (2018) determined that compared to the secondary data collection method, the primary data collection method may get expensive since there is great involvement of respondents andthe expense to prepare and carry the study can also be high. In addition to this, Woo (2017) also mentioned that to appropriately finish the study, the primary method of data collection is required to establish and execute the study plan.  On the other hand, the study has certain limitations. For example, the results will be based on the interview responses of students and teachers of Islamic supplementary schooling, and the number of participants is very limited, which cannot reflect on the efficiency of online Islamic supplementary schooling during Covid-19. Therefore, it is recommended that better outcomes be achieved viaa mixed-methods approach and selection of a large sample size in future research.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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