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A systematic review of the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on elderly women in the UK
Overview of Chapter 1
This chapter aims to discuss the basic and fundamentals of the overall thesis. These basic are covered and reflected throughout the dissertation. Therefore, this chapter plays an active role in the process of developing relevant knowledge and understanding of the readers. Hence, several aspects are covered in this chapter, which is discussed below.
Introduction and Background
The proposed research is entitled “A systematic review of the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on elderly women in the UK.” According to Miller and McCaw (2019, p.850) an act of domestic violence or abuse conducted by a former or current partner or spouse against the other partner or spouse in an intimate relationship is identified as Intimate partner violence (IPV). A previous or ongoing personal, sexual or close relationship with an individual is regarded as an intimate partner and the violence conducted by an intimate partner extends beyond marriage. Thus, with reference to Miller and McCaw (2019), it is found that IPV is considered as domestic violence by a former or current spouse or partner in an intimate rapport in contradiction to the other partner or spouse. IPV comes in several forms, which includes verbal, sexual, physical, economic, and emotional abuse. Dicola and Spaar (2016) have depicted that as per ONS (Office of National Statistics) an examination has been conducted in 2018 within the vicinity of the UK. It is found that about 14.3% men and 17.8% of women suffered IPV in England and Wales. In addition, this percentage has been considered a massive population of the UK. Smith et al., (2018) has defined that atrocities of women’s due to IPV in the UK have been increasing, 2 women are murdered weekly and several are admitted in the health care units of the UK.
Among women’s research focused is connected to elderly women of the UK. In accord with this study like Lundgren and Amin (2015) and Chisholm, Bullock, and Ferguson (2017) has been explored and it is found that more than 10% of women who are killed by spouse of partner are above the age of 60 in the UK. The elderly are the fastest-growing group of people in the world and the number of people over age 60 is expected to triple from 683 million in 2006 to nearly 1.8 billion in 2040 (Breiding et al., 2015). With age, the incidence and occurrence of IPV in elderly women are likely to increase in all countries so as in the UK. It is important, however, to distinguish amid IPV and elderly abuse as people have the wrong perception regarding such intense and critical issues, supported by (Beyer, Wallis, and Hamberger 2015). Sugg (2015) has defined that IPV among elderly women in the UK comes in many forms, including physical, financial, psychological, sexual, and deliberate or unintentional neglect.
Moreover, it is necessary to comprehend how elderly women in the UK is experiencing IPV. Lloyd and Ramon (2017) have defined that younger women also suffered from IPV; however, it is different from the elderly women situation. In addition, it is necessary to understand such difference, which supports in the planning and provision of adequate and smart care to elderly one. This is because, they are weak, suffering from numerous other health issues, and many more (Chandan et al., 2020). Likewise, older women in the UK may face diverse barriers to seeking support due to health problems or dependence on carers or income. If a lifelong approach is taken, there may be times in a woman’s life when she is more prone to abuse, like retirement, or perimenopause, when progenies leave home (Bates 2016). Ouellet‐Morin (2015) has depicted that older women in the UK may not be as aware of the support available, which somehow affect them in a drastic manner and ultimately it ended up by the murder.
Furthermore, Crombie, Hooker, and Reisenhofer (2017) have depicted that IPV also comes with some long and short-term physical and psychological sequelae. In addition, this covers poor reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, substance abuse, depression, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic pain, traumatic injury, and many others in elderly women. These sometimes come with dying situations as elderly women do not have enough strength and vitality at a certain age to recover from the repercussions of IPV (González et al., 2015). In the UK, there are policies formulated in this regarded, not only in the UK but on the global scale policies and approaches are well-crafted and well-designed (Vetere 2017). With reference to Stöckl and Penhale (2015), it is found that in the UK, NICE (“National Institute for Health and Care Excellence”) has formed a quality standard and public health guideline for IPV with recommendations. This policy is aimed at several aspects like commissioning; service planning; identifying abuse; multi-agency working; specialist advocacy help for victims; and professionals training so that the impact of IPV amid the elderly women can be minimised, supported by (Ahmad et al., 2017).
Therefore, it can be stated that even though in the UK, IPV impact and cases among the elderly women are on a significant level, there are healthcare policies, which are designed and crafted in such manner so that quality care along with safe environment can be provided to such women. It is also addressed in the afore-conducted analysis that IPV amid elderly women in the UK comes with several other health issues, which eventually comes with adverse outcomes. Thus, this study is designed to explore such impact, causes, and reasons of IPV with elderly women in the UK as the UK has been measured and classified as the most royal and well-organised state and at the same time is listed in developed countries who are keenly focusing on the healthcare-related facets.
This section is separated into two sub-sections, which, therefore, helps in understanding the aspects (queries) covered, discussed, examined, and elucidated in the proposed study.
Research Aim and Objectives
Even though IPV is prevalent universally with a momentous health and wellbeing impact on individuals counting young population and men alike, wide-ranging scrutiny in the awareness and understanding of the nature and scope of IPV in older women has not been scarce, supported by Khalifeh et al., (2017) and Miltz et al., (2019). There is an insufficient professional response in retrieving specialist capitals to mitigate their grief (Ali and McGarry 2018). Consequently, this established a lot of unwillingness from the older population to unveil their experience of violence and seek aid which strengthens their enactment of abuse by their IP with augmented enduring health significances (Hester et al., 2015).
“Critically explore the current empirical study on the prevalence of IPV and its associated health factors including physical, psychological and economic impact in the lives of elderly women in the UK.”
The proposed study will therefore highlight some of the barriers to detecting abuse and seeking help, and taking into account government policies for providing services tailored to the needs to protect them from their perpetrators.
Following are the research questions of the proposed study;
- How does intimate partner violence impact of IPV on older women in the UK?
- What factors influence violence abuse disclosure among elderly women in the UK?
- What are the healthcare policies formulated in the UK to minimise the impact of IPV among elderly women in the UK?
IPV is a major public health problem worldwide. This has serious consequences for physical and mental health and enormous economic and social costs. With an ageing population around the world, it is significant to understand older women’s experiences with IPV. Older women tend to suffer from IPV, but because of their age and life transitions, they are not able to avail the support. In addition, they are more vulnerable to the impact and consequences associated with the IPV. They face inimitable barriers to retrieving help, like dependence on their partners and disability.
Intimate partner violence is one of the most serious and prevalent issues with long term life-threatening health hitches; economic crisis and the social implication that affect people especially women throughout the world. Most individuals who suffer these debilitating situations such as physical and psychological consequences require the service of a social worker to help them deal with their experience with respect and confidence for a positive outcome (Koehn 2018). IPV that is linked to stress, depression, physical injury and trauma and elderly women are more likely to suffer violence and abuse especially psychologically and their age makes them vulnerable and reluctant to disclose abuse (Whitton et al., 2019).
Research such as Winters et al., (2020) indicates that domestic violence and abuse has negative consequences on its victims and those that are affected are less likely disclose it to their families because of shame associated and fear of repercussions from the perpetrator (Winters et al., 23020). It is important to highlight and try to deal with the issue of IPV in older women because social worker encounters these people because they are at the forefront of service provision offering practical and advocacy support to deal with their situation. Therefore, social workers have a significant role to play in conjunction with other professionals in preventing IPV and to support those affected to get justice via their practice, policies, law and advocacy to hold their perpetrators accountable. Thus, in the proposed study PCF and evidence-based practice is also incorporated so that the facts and figures are well-defined. This helps the readers to develop an effective relationship with the context of this study and at the same time, it aids the researcher to accomplish the aim and objectives profoundly.
To accomplish the aim and objectives, it is necessary that a synchronised and symmetric approach is adopted, which helps in the process of accomplishing the aim and objectives, as well as in developing an effective and smart understanding level of the readers with the context of the proposed study (Wiles 2012). This expert suggestion has been adhered by the researcher of the proposed study and therefore, the researcher has acted accordingly. This proposed study has been divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 is about the research overview in which introduction, aim, objectives, and other vital facets are discussed. Chapter 2 is about the methods and approaches adopted by the researcher to accomplish the aim and objectives of the study, known as the methodology. Chapter 3 is aimed to critically conduct the literature review, based on the aspects of Chapter 3, Chapter 4 is conducted in which critical analysis is addressed.
Lastly, in Chapter 5, conclusion and recommendations are addressed. Therefore, the overview of the dissertation is designed in such a manner so that each and every aspect of the proposed study can be discussed and addressed.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]